I was seeking to connect to my Windows 7 computer (that has a lot of disk space) from my Ubuntu Linux which is running on my Macbook laptop (via VMWare) which doesn’t have a lot of spare disk space and less than I needed for what I was doing. Far as I could tell everything was setup correctly, e.g. the file share in in Windows existing and was set to “share”, network working, etc. The Ubuntu machine was connecting correctly to a “Windows” share on my server (actually, Samba). Even turned off all firewalls to remove that as possible roadblock.
When using Ubuntu’s “Connect to Server …” GUI available from the “Places” button, I was doing everything right, but Ubuntu kept re-prompting me for the Windows password. Over and Over.
From a bit of creating Google work, found that the problem is something to do with “Windows Live Sign-in Assistant” and the recommendation was to un-install it. I have Windows Live running on the Windows 7 machine, but could not see how to uninstall only the Sign-in Assistant. Since Windows Live is not something I need on that machine, I simply un-installed the whole product.
Bingo. Connection achieved.
See Microsoft Technet.